(spectrum or hierarchy) A numerical representation of the climate system based on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of its components, their interactions and feedback processes, and accounting for all or some of its known properties. The climate system can be represented by models of varying complexity, that is, for any one component or combination of components a spectrum or hierarchy of models can be identified, differing in such aspects as the number of spatial dimensions, the extent to which physical, chemical, or biological processes are explicitly represented, or the level at which empirical parameterisations are involved.
Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) provide a comprehensive representation of the climate system that is near or at the most comprehensive end of the spectrum currently available. There is an evolution towards more complex models with interactive chemistry and biology. Climate models are applied, as a research tool, to study and simulate the climate, and for operational purposes, including monthly, seasonal, and interannual climate predictions.